Currently, there is a variety of methods for the identification of plant GMOs/GMIs. All these methods can be divided into three major groups: chemical, immunological and PCR.

The chemical methods are based on the detection of compounds synthesised in genetically modified plants. For example, this method can be used to identify genetically modified (GM) soybean, modification of which has affected the fatty acid composition of lipids.

Enzyme-linked assay methods are based on the use of antibodies specific to the proteins that are synthesised only in GM plants and are absent in non-modified ones.

In its turn, the PCR method is based on the detection of specific DNA sequences. Plant transformations are performed using various transgenes and different combinations of regulatory elements. The use of specific primers allows detection of these transgenes and regulatory elements in the sample. Moreover, real-time PCR is able to detect several targets in one reaction tube, which facilitates and accelerates the assay.

The unique feature of PCR distinguishing it from other methods is the fact that it can be used to analyze any type of material: vegetative plant parts, seeds or multi-component food products and feeds.