Although horse breeding once was one of the most important areas of Russian animal industry, it has changed significantly over the past few centuries due to objective and subjective reasons. For example, before the revolution, Russia was the leader in the total number of horses. Despite the significantly reduced livestock, Russia is still in the top ten world leaders by the number of horses.

Horse breeding can be divided into two main areas: commercial (for meat and milk) and sports ones. Both areas have very different breeding approaches, but prophylaxis and monitoring of infectious diseases are common to them.

As compared to many other existing methods of diagnostics, PCR analysis has several advantages including the following: direct detection of disease pathogen in the sample, high sensitivity and specificity, the possibility to identify several pathogens in one reaction tube.